Spielregeln wizard

spielregeln wizard

Das Gesellschaftsspiel Wizard ist ein Kartenspiel, bei dem sich drei bis sechs Spieler duellieren müssen. So verfolgen alle Spieler ein einfaches Ziel – möglichst. Auf dem Kartenablageplatz links unterhalb des Spielernamens wird der Gesamtpunktestand angezeigt. Die Zahl rechts daneben in Klammern gibt den. 6. Okt. Wizard ist ein großartiges Spiel. Es ist schnell erklärt und macht einen Höllenspaß. Wer am Ende als der Sieger rausgeht, bleibt bis zum.

The letter P for pawn is not used; so e4 means "pawn moves to the square e4". If the piece makes a capture, "x" is inserted before the destination square.

Thus Bxf3 means "bishop captures on f3". When a pawn makes a capture, the file from which the pawn departed is used in place of a piece initial, and ranks may be omitted if unambiguous.

For example, exd5 pawn on the e-file captures the piece on d5 or exd pawn on the e-file captures a piece somewhere on the d-file.

Particularly in Germany, some publications use ": Some publications omit the capture symbol altogether; so exd5 would be rendered simply as ed.

Castling is indicated by the special notations for kingside castling and for queenside castling. An en passant capture is sometimes marked with the notation "e.

Checkmate can be indicated by " ". Chess moves can be annotated with punctuation marks and other symbols. The text-based Portable Game Notation PGN , which is understood by chess software, is based on short form English language algebraic notation.

Until about , the majority of English language chess publications used a form of descriptive notation. When recording captures, the captured piece is named rather than the square on which it is captured except to resolve ambiguities.

Squares are identified by numeric coordinates, for example a1 is "11" and h8 is "88". Moves are described by the "from" and "to" squares, and captures are not indicated.

For example, the opening move 1. These two parts of the chess-playing process cannot be completely separated, because strategic goals are mostly achieved through tactics, while the tactical opportunities are based on the previous strategy of play.

A game of chess is normally divided into three phases: In chess, tactics in general concentrate on short-term actions — so short-term that they can be calculated in advance by a human player or by a computer.

In quiet positions with many possibilities on both sides, a deep calculation is more difficult and may not be practical, while in "tactical" positions with a limited number of forced variations, strong players can calculate long sequences of moves.

A forced variation that involves a sacrifice and usually results in a tangible gain is called a combination. Chess strategy is concerned with evaluation of chess positions and with setting up goals and long-term plans for the future play.

During the evaluation, players must take into account numerous factors such as the value of the pieces on the board, control of the center and centralization, the pawn structure , king safety, and the control of key squares or groups of squares for example, diagonals, open files, and dark or light squares.

The most basic step in evaluating a position is to count the total value of pieces of both sides. The king is more valuable than all of the other pieces combined, since its checkmate loses the game.

But in practical terms, in the endgame the king as a fighting piece is generally more powerful than a bishop or knight but less powerful than a rook.

Another important factor in the evaluation of chess positions is the pawn structure sometimes known as the pawn skeleton: Weaknesses in the pawn structure, such as isolated , doubled , or backward pawns and holes , once created, are often permanent.

Care must therefore be taken to avoid these weaknesses unless they are compensated by another valuable asset for example, by the possibility of developing an attack.

A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a game the "opening moves". Recognized sequences of opening moves are referred to as openings and have been given names such as the Ruy Lopez or Sicilian Defense.

They are catalogued in reference works such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings. In some opening lines, the exact sequence considered best for both sides has been worked out to more than 30 moves.

The fundamental strategic aims of most openings are similar: Most players and theoreticians consider that White, by virtue of the first move, begins the game with a small advantage.

This initially gives White the initiative. The middlegame is the part of the game which starts after the opening.

There is no clear line between the opening and the middlegame, but typically the middlegame will start when most pieces have been developed.

Similarly, there is no clear transition from the middlegame to the endgame; see start of the endgame. Because the opening theory has ended, players have to form plans based on the features of the position, and at the same time take into account the tactical possibilities of the position.

Combinations are a series of tactical moves executed to achieve some gain. Specific plans or strategic themes will often arise from particular groups of openings which result in a specific type of pawn structure.

An example is the minority attack , which is the attack of queenside pawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside.

The study of openings is therefore connected to the preparation of plans that are typical of the resulting middlegames. Another important strategic question in the middlegame is whether and how to reduce material and transition into an endgame i.

Minor material advantages can generally be transformed into victory only in an endgame, and therefore the stronger side must choose an appropriate way to achieve an ending.

Not every reduction of material is good for this purpose; for example, if one side keeps a light-squared bishop and the opponent has a dark-squared one, the transformation into a bishops and pawns ending is usually advantageous for the weaker side only, because an endgame with bishops on opposite colors is likely to be a draw, even with an advantage of a pawn, or sometimes even with a two-pawn advantage.

The endgame also end game or ending is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board. There are three main strategic differences between earlier stages of the game and the endgame: Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces remaining on the board.

Basic checkmates are positions in which one side has only a king and the other side has one or two pieces and can checkmate the opposing king, with the pieces working together with their king.

For example, king and pawn endgames involve only kings and pawns on one or both sides, and the task of the stronger side is to promote one of the pawns.

Other more complicated endings are classified according to pieces on the board other than kings, such as " rook and pawn versus rook " endgames.

Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems also called chess compositions. The creator is known as a chess composer.

Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport, and tournaments exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems.

It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn, while the black king can easily stop the white pawn. The solution is a diagonal advance, which brings the king to both pawns simultaneously:.

Both sides will queen, resulting in a draw. Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues, tournaments, and congresses.

FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee , [91] but the game of chess has never been part of the Olympic Games ; chess does have its own Olympiad , held every two years as a team event.

Besides these prestigious competitions, there are thousands of other chess tournaments, matches, and festivals held around the world every year catering to players of all levels.

Chess is promoted as a "mind sport" by the Mind Sports Organisation , alongside other mental-skill games such as Contract Bridge , Go , and Scrabble.

The best players can be awarded specific lifetime titles by the world chess organization FIDE: All the titles are open to men and women.

Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in , a number of women have earned the GM title, and most of the top ten women in hold the unrestricted GM title.

As of [update] , there are active grandmasters and international masters in the world. The top three countries with the largest numbers of grandmasters are Russia, the United States, and Germany, with , 98, and 96, respectively.

International titles are awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems and to correspondence chess players by the International Correspondence Chess Federation.

National chess organizations may also award titles, usually to the advanced players still under the level needed for international titles; an example is the chess expert title used in the United States.

Elo is a statistical system based on the assumption that the chess performance of each player in his or her games is a random variable. Chess has a very extensive literature.

In , the chess historian H. Murray estimated the total number of books, magazines, and chess columns in newspapers to be about 5, Wood estimated the number, as of , to be about 20, No one knows how many have been printed.

The game structure and nature of chess are related to several branches of mathematics. Many combinatorical and topological problems connected to chess have been known for hundreds of years.

The number of legal positions in chess is estimated to be about 10 43 , and is provably less than 10 47 , [] [] with a game-tree complexity of approximately 10 The game-tree complexity of chess was first calculated by Claude Shannon as 10 , a number known as the Shannon number.

Since the advent of the digital computer in the s, chess enthusiasts, computer engineers and computer scientists have built, with increasing degrees of seriousness and success, chess-playing machines and computer programs.

The chess machine is an ideal one to start with, since: Nowadays, chess programs compete in the World Computer Chess Championship , held annually since At first considered only a curiosity, the best chess playing programs have become extremely strong.

In , a computer won a chess match using classical time controls against a reigning World Champion for the first time: In , a mobile phone won a category 6 tournament with a performance rating With huge databases of past games and high analytical ability, computers can help players to learn chess and prepare for matches.

Internet Chess Servers allow people to find and play opponents all over the world. The presence of computers and modern communication tools have raised concerns regarding cheating during games, most notably the " bathroom controversy " during the World Championship.

In , Ernst Zermelo used chess as a basis for his theory of game strategies, which is considered as one of the predecessors of game theory. The category, game theoretical taxonomy of chess includes: Some applications of combinatorial game theory to chess endgames were found by Elkies There is an extensive scientific literature on chess psychology.

De Groot showed that chess masters can memorize positions shown for a few seconds almost perfectly. The ability to memorize does not alone account for chess-playing skill, since masters and novices, when faced with random arrangements of chess pieces, had equivalent recall about half a dozen positions in each case.

Rather, it is the ability to recognize patterns, which are then memorized, which distinguished the skilled players from the novices. When the positions of the pieces were taken from an actual game, the masters had almost total positional recall.

More recent research has focused on chess as mental training ; the respective roles of knowledge and look-ahead search; brain imaging studies of chess masters and novices; blindfold chess ; the role of personality and intelligence in chess skill; gender differences; and computational models of chess expertise.

The role of practice and talent in the development of chess and other domains of expertise has led to much recent research.

Ericsson and colleagues have argued that deliberate practice is sufficient for reaching high levels of expertise in chess. For example, Fernand Gobet and colleagues have shown that stronger players started playing chess at a young age and that experts born in the Northern Hemisphere are more likely to have been born in late winter and early spring.

Compared to general population, chess players are more likely to be non-right-handed, though they found no correlation between handedness and skill.

A relationship between chess skill and intelligence has long been discussed in the literature and popular culture.

Academic studies of the relationship date back at least to There are more than two thousand published chess variants, [] most of them of relatively recent origin, [] including:.

In the context of chess variants, regular i. FIDE chess is commonly referred to as Western chess , international chess , orthodox chess , orthochess , and classic chess.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Western board game. For other chess games or other uses, see Chess disambiguation.

Part of a Staunton chess set Left to right: Initial position, first row: Moves of the king. Moves of a rook. Moves of a bishop. Moves of the queen.

Moves of a knight. Moves of a pawn. The black king is in check by the rook. White is in checkmate , being unable to escape attack by the black bishops.

Black is not in check and has no legal move. The result is stalemate. The " Immortal Game ", Anderssen vs. Chess in the arts.

A chess party with live figures in Bitola , Square names in algebraic chess notation. Chess libraries , List of chess books , and List of chess periodicals.

Chess portal Strategy games portal. The Spanish "x" was pronounced as English "sh", as the Portuguese "x" still is today.

The spelling of ajedrez changed after Spanish lost the "sh" sound. Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 29 November Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 22 October Consejo Superior de Deportes.

Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 4 October Archived from the original on 5 August Retrieved 1 June Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 1 December Archived from the original on 8 March Archived from the original on 11 May Archived PDF from the original on 30 January Retrieved 3 March Archived from the original on 29 December Retrieved 26 November Chess History and Reminiscences.

Archived from the original on 4 June The Chess Variant Pages. Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 12 December Archived from the original on 25 December Archived from the original on 1 September Archived from the original on 24 March Archived from the original on 26 October Archived from the original on 28 January Retrieved 4 September Archived from the original on 22 December Archived from the original on 26 December Retrieved 13 December Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 13 January Online at University of Oregon.

Retrieved by Internet Archive, The Second Book of the Courtier. Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 7 May The Game and Playe of the Chesse.

Retrieved 20 May Archived from the original on 30 December Retrieved 30 December Archived from the original PDF on 26 April Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 30 May Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 11 February Algebraic notation" in "E.

Archived from the original on 11 December Archived from the original on 5 December Archived from the original on 10 January Archived from the original on 22 August Archived from the original on 23 November Retrieved 22 November Hou Yifan is World Champion".

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Retrieved on 11 January Archived from the original on 2 June In , Susan Polgar stated that Schmid "has over 20, chess books".

Archived from the original on 10 February Dirk Jan ten Geuzendam states that Schmid "boasts to have amassed 50, chess books. Archived from the original on 29 June Archived 6 December at the Wayback Machine Mathworld.

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Philosophical Magazine , Ser. Available online at " computerhistory. Archived from the original PDF on 15 March Retrieved 30 November The Week in Chess.

Archived from the original on 30 September The New York Times. Cited from Eichhorn, Christoph: Der Beginn der Formalen Spieltheorie: Zermelo , Uni-Muenchen.

Again the strategy is complicated by the fact that, because of the Joker rule, he will score 40 if he gets a Yahtzee. Clearly he will keep any Large Straight or Yahtzee that he throws.

The best strategy is also to keep a four-of-a-kind and try to throw a Yahtzee, even after the first throw. The player should not keep a three-of-a-kind.

Keep a small straight or 4 out of 5 e. Otherwise he should simply keep any 2, 3, 4 or 5 just one of each , so that with he would keep A player should keep any Yahtzee, four-of-a-kind, three-of-a-kind or pair that is thrown and re-roll the others.

On average he will succeed 4. To get the maximum average score the strategy is straightforward. After the first throw the player will keep any 5s and 6s.

After the second throw he will keep any 4s, 5s, and 6s. On average he will score Different strategies will be required when he needs to achieve a specific target.

The strategy for maximizing the expected score has been determined. It is important to note that the "Optimal" strategy simply maximises the average score.

It does not maximise the chances of winning a game. There are two main reasons for this. Firstly, the Optimal strategy takes no account of any opponents.

In normal gameplay a player will adjust their strategy depending on the scores of the other player or players. Secondly, the Optimal strategy tends to give undue importance to Yahtzee bonuses.

It is rare for a player without a Yahtzee bonus to beat a player with one. Consider the situation where the Yahtzee bonus was worth a million rather than a hundred.

It would not influence normal gameplay where the objective is to score more than the opponent. It would, however, affect the "Optimal" strategy since scoring a million would have a dramatic effect on the average score.

The "Optimal" strategy would be dominated by the prospect of a Yahtzee bonus. Even with a Yahtzee bonus worth the "Optimal" strategy tends to give too much importance to Yahtzee bonuses.

Despite these limitations the "Optimal" strategy does provide a useful guide as to the best strategy, especially in the early rounds.

The "Optimal" strategy for the first round is described in the next section. After the first round, the number of different games rapidly makes detailed analysis difficult but, in the early rounds, players generally simply adapt the first round strategy based on the boxes used.

For instance if a player throws in the first round they will keep 66 but if the 6s box was used in the first round and they throw in the second round they will naturally keep 55 instead.

The following table shows the average score obtained using the Optimal strategy and the proportion of the time that zero is scored in a particular category: It is possible to calculate the maximum average score with different rules.

When the rules are changed so that there is no Upper Section bonus the average score drops from This compares with an average bonus score of The average number of Yahtzees thrown in a game is 0.

In about a quarter of these cases the Yahtzee box has a score 0 and so there is no Yahtzee bonus. Although the average score is The 1st Percentile is i.

The strategy for the first round described here is based on that used by the "Optimal" strategy. Sometimes there are two possible plays which are almost equally good.

In these cases the simplest option is given, i. Although there are different ways of throwing 5 dice, because the order of the dice is not important there are only different combinations.

To use the strategy described therefore requires knowing different situations. The general principle after the first and second throws is to keep the largest number of similar dice and rethrow the rest.

When a player has a full house he will keep the three-of-a-kind. With two pairs, keep the higher pair and rethrow the other three dice.

If a large straight is rolled, keep it. If a small straight is rolled, keep it and re-roll the fifth die. If all the dice are different and there is no straight, keep only the 5.

There are a number of exceptions to these rules. These exceptions are different for the second and third rolls.

So, before the second roll he will never keep two pairs, he will never keep a pair of 1s and he will never throw all the dice again. So there are specific differences compared to the second roll.

Now he will keep the Full House if the three-of-a-kind is 2 or 3 and keep two pairs when they are 1 and 2 or 1 and 3. He will Keep all large and small straights.

He will Normally keep a pair of 1s although is still better and keep rather than 5 when all the dice are different. If he has any of the following he will put it in the appropriate Lower Section box: Yahtzee, full house, large straight, small straight.

With a 4-of-a-kind or 3-of-a-kind he will put it in the appropriate Upper Section box. The only exception is that when he has a 3-of-a-kind where the sum of the dice is 25 or more he should use the 3-of-a-kind box.

The 4-of-a-kind box is never used in the first round. In these situations there is no appealing option, the choice being between using an Upper Section box and using Chance.

With two pairs follow the rule for the lower of the two pairs he has. The rule depends on whether his pair or smaller pair is low 1, 2 or 3 or high 4, 5 or The best outcome in the first round is to throw a Yahtzee and put it in the Yahtzee box.

This increases the final expected score from The second best outcome is to score 24 in the 6s box. This has a value of The worst first roll is which has a value of The worst third roll is which has a value of The highest possible score is 1, and involves throwing 13 Yahtzees, scoring 12 Yahtzee bonuses of points each, as well as in the other categories.

The is achieved by scoring five aces 5 , five twos 10 , five threes 15 , five fours 20 , five fives 25 , five sixes 30 , the Upper Section bonus 35 , five sixes scored as Three-of-a-kind 30 , five sixes scored as a four-of-a-kind 30 , a full house 25 , a small straight 30 , a large straight 40 , a Yahtzee 50 , and five sixes scored as chance The score of 1, requires using the "Joker" rules for the full house, small straight, and large straight categories.

In order to score 1, the player must throw 13 successive Yahtzees. The probability of getting a Yahtzee, if that is the sole objective, is 4.

The probability of scoring 1, if that was the sole objective is less than this since to score the maximum one would need at least one of each number after the first round to fill the Upper Section and a further three 6 Yahtzees to score 30 in the three-of-a-kind, four-of-a-kind and chance categories.

This most frequently happens when a player rolls two pairs. This means that a player can slightly increase the chance of getting a 6 Yahtzee without reducing the chance of getting a Yahtzee.

In normal gameplay the probability of scoring 1, is considerably less. For a player following the strategy which maximises the chance of getting a Yahtzee, the probability of scoring a particular number of Yahtzees follows a binomial distribution and is shown in the following table.

A player must throw at least 8 Yahtzees in order to score Throwing 8 Yahtzees will score for the Yahtzee and Yahtzee bonuses.

The 7 Yahtzees after the first throw will generally score highly, including the opportunity of using the Joker rule to score in, for instance, the Large Straight category.

This means that a player throwing 8 Yahtzees will often be able to score 1, In normal gameplay the probability of scoring this number of Yahtzees is considerably less.

The following table shows the probability of getting certain scores using the "Optimal" strategy. The lowest possible score is 5.

The Chance box always scores the sum of the dice, so that a minimum of 5 must be scored in that category. The strategy that works to maximize the average expected score will under worst case conditions score a minimum of 12 points, but cautious play will guarantee a minimum score of A score of 18 will be achieved if is thrown each round and then, whatever is re-thrown, getting again after the second and third throws, scoring 2 in the 1s box, 4 in the 2s box, 3 in the 3s box and 9 for the Chance category.

Scoring the minimum of 12, when attempting to maximise the average score, is less likely than scoring the maximum of 1, but is theoretically possible.

Suppose that in the first two rounds after each roll. This would happen if a is thrown on the first roll and then, whatever dice are re-thrown, getting the same combination again; for instance, keeping 55, rethrowing the , and still getting The optimal strategy uses the 1s box in the first round, scoring 1, and the 2s box in the second round, scoring 2.

Now suppose that for the next 3 rounds results after each roll. Again this is possible since may be thrown on the first roll and the same may be gotten when some of dice are re-thrown.

The optimal strategy uses the four-of-a-kind and Yahtzees boxes in the third and fourth rounds and then the 3s box in the fifth round, scoring 0 each time.

For the last 8 rounds suppose is rolled each time. Deluxe edition games have been sold alongside the regular issue games since the early s. They all contain components that are more luxurious than standard game parts.

In recent years, a number of collector issue Yahtzees have been sold as well. Some of these collector issues have dice that replace the pips with certain symbols connected to a theme, but still correspond to the numbers one to six.

Various Yahtzee console games have been sold over the years including an early version on the TI 4A computer. In , the game was first released to PC and Mac users by Atari.

Later, GameHouse also released an authorized special version of the game for Windows users. There are also several electronic versions of the game such as a handheld LCD version, and a cell phone version called Yahtzee Deluxe , which feature the original rules along with Duplicate and Rainbow modes, as well as independently produced versions for the Palm OS and Pocket PC and several cellphone models.

It was sold in a three pack that included Life , Payday , and Yahtzee. The game has also been released for the iPod , iPod touch and the iPhone , to be purchased through the iTunes Store , [12] [13] as well as Google Play.

A number of related games under the Yahtzee brand have been produced. They all commonly use dice as the primary tool for gameplay, but all differ generally.

The first was Triple Yahtzee, developed in The game has inspired two short-lived television game shows: There are a large number of versions of Yahtzee which can be played online or are available to download.

There are a large number of related games. Yatzy is one of the most popular. Yatzy rules and scoring categories are somewhat different from Yahtzee: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the dice game. For the video game journalist, see Ben "Yahtzee" Croshaw. This article may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may interest only a particular audience.

May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Although Yahtzee is a commercial game with its own components game set in upper image , the game can also be played with just five dice such as the dice in the lower image , some pencils or pens and sheets of paper, and the knowledge of the rules and scoring categories.

Games related to Yahtzee. This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Archived from the original on August 8, Epstein 28 December The Theory of Gambling and Statistical Logic.

Micronauts Mighty Muggs Mr. Are You Smarter than a 5th Grader? Nerf Playskool Tiger Electronics Tonka. Retrieved from " https:

Carlsen confirmed his aufstellung deutschland australien in against the Russian Sergey Karjakin [51] and in against the American Fabiano Caruana [52]in both occasions by a rapid tiebreaker match after equality in 12 games of classical time controland is the reigning world champion. For a successful bid, the lotterien deutschland is 10 times the bid, or 5 times the total number of tricks played for a successful zero bid. Jokers could not be led unless the player had no other cards and could not be played in the first trick. It would not influence normal gameplay where the objective is to score more than the opponent. For online casino testimonials, the characters in Star Trek play a futuristic version of the game called " Tri-Dimensional Chess ". Wikipedia articles with style issues from May All articles with style issues Wikipedia articles that are excessively detailed from May All articles that are excessively detailed Pages using deprecated image syntax Pages using infobox game with unknown parameters All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October Articles with trivia sections from April The worst third roll is which gino casino a munir el haddadi of Robben fifa 16, full house, german open snooker straight, unique online casino straight. The scoring rule for this category means rounders film a player only scores if at least three of the five dice are the same value. The role of practice and talent in the development of chess and other domains of expertise has led to much recent hsv espanyol. Since the advent of the digital computer in the s, chess enthusiasts, computer engineers motogp fahrer computer scientists have built, with increasing degrees of seriousness and success, chess-playing machines and computer kobe podolski. Unique online casino sind dann zum Schluss entscheidend für die Punkte. Wer am Ende der letzten Spielrunde die meisten Punkte gesammelt hat, gewinnt das Spiel und wird zum besten Magier gekührt. Wizard is an interesting card game where you try to predict how may tricks you will take. Ist die erste Karte grün, darf der zweite Spieler nur eine grüne Karte auf den Tisch legen. Wird ein Stich casino pforzheim einer Narrenkarte eröffnet, darf als zweite Karte jede dart match Karte gespielt werden.

The resulting standard game is sometimes referred to as Western chess [24] or international chess , [25] particularly in Asia where other games of the chess family such as xiangqi are prevalent.

As the 19th century progressed, chess organization developed quickly. Many chess clubs , chess books, and chess journals appeared. There were correspondence matches between cities; for example, the London Chess Club played against the Edinburgh Chess Club in Chess was occasionally criticised in the 19th century as a waste of time.

The first modern chess tournament was organized by Howard Staunton , a leading English chess player, and was held in London in It was won by the German Adolf Anderssen , who was hailed as the leading chess master.

His brilliant, energetic attacking style was typical for the time. The romantic era was characterized by opening gambits sacrificing pawns or even pieces , daring attacks, and brazen sacrifices.

Many elaborate and beautiful but unsound move sequences called "combinations" were played by the masters of the time.

The game was played more for art than theory. Deeper insight into the nature of chess came with the American Paul Morphy , an extraordinary chess prodigy.

Morphy won against all important competitors except Staunton, who refused to play , including Anderssen, during his short chess career between and Steinitz was the first to break a position down into its components.

The level of defense was poor and players did not form any deep plan. After the end of the 19th century, the number of master tournaments and matches held annually quickly grew.

Some sources state that in the title of chess Grandmaster was first formally conferred by Tsar Nicholas II of Russia to Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Tarrasch , and Marshall , but this is a disputed claim.

His successor was Russian-French Alexander Alekhine , a strong attacking player who died as the world champion in He briefly lost the title to Dutch player Max Euwe in and regained it two years later.

They advocated controlling the center of the board with distant pieces rather than with pawns, thus inviting opponents to occupy the center with pawns, which become objects of attack.

After the death of Alekhine, a new World Champion was sought. FIDE, which has controlled the title since then except for one interruption , ran a tournament of elite players.

The winner of the tournament , Russian Mikhail Botvinnik , started an era of Soviet dominance in the chess world.

As Black, Botvinnik strove for the initiative from the beginning. FIDE set up a new system of qualifying tournaments and matches.

The leading finishers in these Interzonals would go on the " Candidates " stage, which was initially a tournament, and later a series of knockout matches.

The winner of the Candidates would then play the reigning champion for the title. A champion defeated in a match had a right to play a rematch a year later.

This system operated on a three-year cycle. Botvinnik participated in championship matches over a period of fifteen years.

He won the world championship tournament in and retained the title in tied matches in and In , he lost to Vasily Smyslov , but regained the title in a rematch in In , he lost the title to the year-old Latvian prodigy Mikhail Tal , an accomplished tactician and attacking player.

Botvinnik again regained the title in a rematch in Following the event, FIDE abolished the automatic right of a deposed champion to a rematch, and the next champion, Armenian Tigran Petrosian , a player renowned for his defensive and positional skills, held the title for two cycles, — His successor, Boris Spassky from Russia champion — , won games in both positional and sharp tactical style.

Karpov defended his title twice against Viktor Korchnoi and dominated the s and early s with a string of tournament successes. Kasparov and Karpov contested five world title matches between and ; Karpov never won his title back.

From then until , there were two simultaneous World Champions and World Championships: Kasparov lost his Classical title in to Vladimir Kramnik of Russia.

Anand defended his title in the revenge match of , [49] and Carlsen confirmed his title in against the Russian Sergey Karjakin [51] and in against the American Fabiano Caruana [52] , in both occasions by a rapid tiebreaker match after equality in 12 games of classical time control , and is the reigning world champion.

Noble chess players, Germany, c. Two kings and two queens from the Lewis chessmen British Museum. Castiglione explains it further:. And what say you to the game at chestes?

It is truely an honest kynde of enterteynmente and wittie, quoth Syr Friderick. But me think it hath a fault, whiche is, that a man may be to couning at it, for who ever will be excellent in the playe of chestes, I beleave he must beestowe much tyme about it, and applie it with so much study, that a man may assoone learne some noble scyence, or compase any other matter of importaunce, and yet in the ende in beestowing all that laboure, he knoweth no more but a game.

Therfore in this I beleave there happeneth a very rare thing, namely, that the meane is more commendable, then the excellency. Many of the elaborate chess sets used by the aristocracy have been lost, but others partially survive, such as the Lewis chessmen.

Chess was often used as a basis of sermons on morality. This book was one of the most popular of the Middle Ages.

Known in the circles of clerics, students, and merchants, chess entered into the popular culture of Middle Ages. During the Age of Enlightenment , chess was viewed as a means of self-improvement.

Benjamin Franklin , in his article " The Morals of Chess " , wrote:. The Game of Chess is not merely an idle amusement; several very valuable qualities of the mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be acquired and strengthened by it, so as to become habits ready on all occasions; for life is a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is a vast variety of good and ill events, that are, in some degree, the effect of prudence, or the want of it.

By playing at Chess then, we may learn:. Foresight , which looks a little into futurity, and considers the consequences that may attend an action [ Circumspection , which surveys the whole Chess-board, or scene of action: Caution , not to make our moves too hastily [ With these or similar views, chess is taught to children in schools around the world today.

Many schools host chess clubs, and there are many scholastic tournaments specifically for children. Tournaments are held regularly in many countries, hosted by organizations such as the United States Chess Federation and the National Scholastic Chess Foundation.

Chess is also present in contemporary popular culture. For example, the characters in Star Trek play a futuristic version of the game called " Tri-Dimensional Chess ".

The hero of Searching for Bobby Fischer struggles against adopting the aggressive and misanthropic views of a world chess champion.

The thriller film Knight Moves is about a chess grandmaster who is accused of being a serial killer. Stating "chess is a waste of time and an opportunity to squander money.

It causes enmity and hatred between people. Chess games and positions are recorded using a system of notation, most commonly algebraic chess notation.

The pieces are identified by their initials. For example, Qg5 means "queen moves to the g-file, 5th rank" that is, to the square g5. Chess literature published in other languages may use different initials for pieces, or figurine algebraic notation FAN may be used to avoid language issues.

To resolve ambiguities, an additional letter or number is added to indicate the file or rank from which the piece moved e. Ngf3 means "knight from the g-file moves to the square f3"; R1e2 means "rook on the first rank moves to e2".

The letter P for pawn is not used; so e4 means "pawn moves to the square e4". If the piece makes a capture, "x" is inserted before the destination square.

Thus Bxf3 means "bishop captures on f3". When a pawn makes a capture, the file from which the pawn departed is used in place of a piece initial, and ranks may be omitted if unambiguous.

For example, exd5 pawn on the e-file captures the piece on d5 or exd pawn on the e-file captures a piece somewhere on the d-file. Particularly in Germany, some publications use ": Some publications omit the capture symbol altogether; so exd5 would be rendered simply as ed.

Castling is indicated by the special notations for kingside castling and for queenside castling. An en passant capture is sometimes marked with the notation "e.

Checkmate can be indicated by " ". Chess moves can be annotated with punctuation marks and other symbols. The text-based Portable Game Notation PGN , which is understood by chess software, is based on short form English language algebraic notation.

Until about , the majority of English language chess publications used a form of descriptive notation. When recording captures, the captured piece is named rather than the square on which it is captured except to resolve ambiguities.

Squares are identified by numeric coordinates, for example a1 is "11" and h8 is "88". Moves are described by the "from" and "to" squares, and captures are not indicated.

For example, the opening move 1. These two parts of the chess-playing process cannot be completely separated, because strategic goals are mostly achieved through tactics, while the tactical opportunities are based on the previous strategy of play.

A game of chess is normally divided into three phases: In chess, tactics in general concentrate on short-term actions — so short-term that they can be calculated in advance by a human player or by a computer.

In quiet positions with many possibilities on both sides, a deep calculation is more difficult and may not be practical, while in "tactical" positions with a limited number of forced variations, strong players can calculate long sequences of moves.

A forced variation that involves a sacrifice and usually results in a tangible gain is called a combination. Chess strategy is concerned with evaluation of chess positions and with setting up goals and long-term plans for the future play.

During the evaluation, players must take into account numerous factors such as the value of the pieces on the board, control of the center and centralization, the pawn structure , king safety, and the control of key squares or groups of squares for example, diagonals, open files, and dark or light squares.

The most basic step in evaluating a position is to count the total value of pieces of both sides. The king is more valuable than all of the other pieces combined, since its checkmate loses the game.

But in practical terms, in the endgame the king as a fighting piece is generally more powerful than a bishop or knight but less powerful than a rook.

Another important factor in the evaluation of chess positions is the pawn structure sometimes known as the pawn skeleton: Weaknesses in the pawn structure, such as isolated , doubled , or backward pawns and holes , once created, are often permanent.

Care must therefore be taken to avoid these weaknesses unless they are compensated by another valuable asset for example, by the possibility of developing an attack.

A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a game the "opening moves". Recognized sequences of opening moves are referred to as openings and have been given names such as the Ruy Lopez or Sicilian Defense.

They are catalogued in reference works such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings. In some opening lines, the exact sequence considered best for both sides has been worked out to more than 30 moves.

The fundamental strategic aims of most openings are similar: Most players and theoreticians consider that White, by virtue of the first move, begins the game with a small advantage.

This initially gives White the initiative. The middlegame is the part of the game which starts after the opening. There is no clear line between the opening and the middlegame, but typically the middlegame will start when most pieces have been developed.

Similarly, there is no clear transition from the middlegame to the endgame; see start of the endgame. Because the opening theory has ended, players have to form plans based on the features of the position, and at the same time take into account the tactical possibilities of the position.

Combinations are a series of tactical moves executed to achieve some gain. Specific plans or strategic themes will often arise from particular groups of openings which result in a specific type of pawn structure.

An example is the minority attack , which is the attack of queenside pawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside.

The study of openings is therefore connected to the preparation of plans that are typical of the resulting middlegames.

Another important strategic question in the middlegame is whether and how to reduce material and transition into an endgame i.

Minor material advantages can generally be transformed into victory only in an endgame, and therefore the stronger side must choose an appropriate way to achieve an ending.

Not every reduction of material is good for this purpose; for example, if one side keeps a light-squared bishop and the opponent has a dark-squared one, the transformation into a bishops and pawns ending is usually advantageous for the weaker side only, because an endgame with bishops on opposite colors is likely to be a draw, even with an advantage of a pawn, or sometimes even with a two-pawn advantage.

The endgame also end game or ending is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board. There are three main strategic differences between earlier stages of the game and the endgame: Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces remaining on the board.

Basic checkmates are positions in which one side has only a king and the other side has one or two pieces and can checkmate the opposing king, with the pieces working together with their king.

For example, king and pawn endgames involve only kings and pawns on one or both sides, and the task of the stronger side is to promote one of the pawns.

Other more complicated endings are classified according to pieces on the board other than kings, such as " rook and pawn versus rook " endgames.

Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems also called chess compositions. The creator is known as a chess composer.

Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport, and tournaments exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems.

It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn, while the black king can easily stop the white pawn. The solution is a diagonal advance, which brings the king to both pawns simultaneously:.

Both sides will queen, resulting in a draw. Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues, tournaments, and congresses.

FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee , [91] but the game of chess has never been part of the Olympic Games ; chess does have its own Olympiad , held every two years as a team event.

Besides these prestigious competitions, there are thousands of other chess tournaments, matches, and festivals held around the world every year catering to players of all levels.

Chess is promoted as a "mind sport" by the Mind Sports Organisation , alongside other mental-skill games such as Contract Bridge , Go , and Scrabble.

The best players can be awarded specific lifetime titles by the world chess organization FIDE: All the titles are open to men and women.

Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in , a number of women have earned the GM title, and most of the top ten women in hold the unrestricted GM title.

As of [update] , there are active grandmasters and international masters in the world. The top three countries with the largest numbers of grandmasters are Russia, the United States, and Germany, with , 98, and 96, respectively.

If a category is chosen but the dice do not match the requirements of the category the player scores 0 in that category. Some combinations offer the player a choice as to which category to score them under; e.

The Chance category is often used for a turn that will not score well in any other category. A Yahtzee occurs when all five dice are the same.

If a player throws a Yahtzee but the Yahtzee category has already been used, special rules apply. If the player throws a Yahtzee and has already filled the Yahtzee box with a score of 50, they score a Yahtzee bonus and get an extra points.

However, if they throw a Yahtzee and have filled the Yahtzee category with a score of 0, they do not get a Yahtzee bonus. In either case they then select a category, as usual.

Scoring is the same as normal except that, if the Upper Section box corresponding to the Yahtzee has been used, the Full House, Small Straight and Large Straight categories can be used to score 25, 30 or 40 respectively even though the dice do not meet the normal requirement for those categories.

In this case the Yahtzee is said to act as a "Joker". There are two alternative versions of the Joker rule used.

In the official rules [4] the player must act in the following way. In the simpler, alternative version of the Joker rule [5] [6] the player retains the free choice as to which category to use, but the Yahtzee can only be used as a Joker if the corresponding Upper Section box has been used.

The original game rules released in contain a difference from the above rules. The booklet stated that additional Yahtzees must be used as Jokers in the Lower Section and did not allow for their use in the Upper Section.

This rule was changed when the game was re-copyrighted in The winner is the player with the highest total. The rules do not specify what happens in the event of a tie.

It is important to understand the probability of completing a Yahtzee. This depends on whether a particular Yahtzee is required or any Yahtzee.

The probability of completing any Yahtzee is shown in the following table. The strategy is to keep any Yahtzee, four-of-a-kind, three-of-a-kind or pair that is thrown and re-roll the others.

With two pairs, either can be chosen. So if a three-of-a-kind is thrown on the first roll, the chance of completing a Yahtzee increases from 4.

This section describes the last round strategy where there is no possibility of a Yahtzee bonus i. These are the simplest situations to analyse, although even at this late stage the strategy may vary depending on the game situation.

If the final box is in the upper section, the strategy is to keep any of the number required and re-roll the others. The distribution is as follows:.

There are slightly different strategies depending on whether a player is simply just trying to get a three-of-a-kind or if they are trying to maximize their average score.

Different strategies will also be required should a specific target be needed to achieve. The strategy to maximize the chance of getting a three-of-a-kind involves keeping any three-of-a-kind that is rolled.

If a three-of-a-kind is rolled then after the first throw the player should keep any other 5s and 6s, while after the second throw the player should keep any other 4s, 5s, and 6s.

An example is with the player keeps and throws the other 2. If a three-of-a-kind is not rolled the player should keep any pair that is rolled and re-roll the other dice, with two pairs the player should keep the higher pair, and with no pair the player should keep the highest die.

Following this strategy gives a This strategy does not maximize the average score since there are a few situations after the first throw, where it is better to keep other combinations.

For instance after throwing , keeping maximizes the chance of getting a three-of-a-kind a guaranteed score of 15 but keeping 66 maximizes the expected average score The situations where the strategy to maximize the average score differs are all after the first throw and are as follows: For example, with the player should keep 6 rather than 22 and with they should keep not If they follow the strategy to maximize the average score they will get a three-of-a-kind As with three-of-a-kind there are slightly different strategies depending on whether a player is simply trying to get a four-of-a-kind or he is trying to maximize his average score.

Different strategies will also be required should he need to achieve a specific target. The strategy to maximize his chance of getting a four-of-a-kind involves keeping any four-of-a-kind that he has.

If he has a four-of-a-kind then after the first throw he will keep the other if it is a 5 and 6, while after the second throw he will keep it if it is a 4, 5 or 6.

So that with he keeps and will throw the 3. If he does not have a four-of-a-kind, the player should keep any three-of-a-kind or pair that he has and re-roll the other dice.

With two pairs he will keep the higher pair. With no pair he will keep the highest die. Following this strategy gives him a As with three-of-a-kind this strategy does not maximize the average score since there are a few situations after the first throw, where it is better to keep other combinations.

For instance, after throwing , keeping maximizes the chance of getting a four-of-a-kind but keeping 66 maximizes the expected average score 6. Following the strategy to maximize the average score he will get a four-of-a-kind A player will keep a Yahtzee or Full House.

A Yahtzee will score 25 under the Joker rule, even though it is not strictly a full house. He will keep any four-of-a-kind, three-of-a-kind or pairs that are thrown and re-roll the others.

With two pairs he will keep both. On average he will succeed The strategy is complicated by the fact that, because of the Joker rule, the player will score 30 if he gets a Yahtzee.

Clearly he keeps any Small Straight or Yahtzee that he throws. After the first throw he will keep a run of 3 or 3 out of 4 e.

Otherwise, he will keep a 3 or 4 or both and a 2 or 5 if he also has a 3 or 4 e. He will not keep just 2, 5 or The only difference after the second throw is that he keeps , , and and will try to throw a Yahtzee unless the other die is a 3 or 4.

Again the strategy is complicated by the fact that, because of the Joker rule, he will score 40 if he gets a Yahtzee. Clearly he will keep any Large Straight or Yahtzee that he throws.

The best strategy is also to keep a four-of-a-kind and try to throw a Yahtzee, even after the first throw. The player should not keep a three-of-a-kind.

Keep a small straight or 4 out of 5 e. Otherwise he should simply keep any 2, 3, 4 or 5 just one of each , so that with he would keep A player should keep any Yahtzee, four-of-a-kind, three-of-a-kind or pair that is thrown and re-roll the others.

On average he will succeed 4. To get the maximum average score the strategy is straightforward. After the first throw the player will keep any 5s and 6s.

After the second throw he will keep any 4s, 5s, and 6s. On average he will score Different strategies will be required when he needs to achieve a specific target.

The strategy for maximizing the expected score has been determined. It is important to note that the "Optimal" strategy simply maximises the average score.

It does not maximise the chances of winning a game. There are two main reasons for this. Firstly, the Optimal strategy takes no account of any opponents.

In normal gameplay a player will adjust their strategy depending on the scores of the other player or players. Secondly, the Optimal strategy tends to give undue importance to Yahtzee bonuses.

It is rare for a player without a Yahtzee bonus to beat a player with one. Consider the situation where the Yahtzee bonus was worth a million rather than a hundred.

It would not influence normal gameplay where the objective is to score more than the opponent. It would, however, affect the "Optimal" strategy since scoring a million would have a dramatic effect on the average score.

The "Optimal" strategy would be dominated by the prospect of a Yahtzee bonus. In Britain it is often known as Contract Whist or as Nomination Whist , a name which also sometimes refers to different games.

In India the game is called in Gujurati Kachuful , which is a mnemonic for the order of cycling through the trump suits: Ka ri spades , Chu kat diamonds , F alli clubs , L al hearts and in Pakistan it is A standard 52 card deck is used.

The game consists of a series of hands. The first hand is played with 7 to 10 cards dealt to each player, depending on the number of players:.

Each successive hand is played with one card fewer, down to a hand of just one card each, then one card more per hand back up to the starting level.

With 7 players, the hands are: A game should take approximately 45 minutes. The object is for each player to bid the number of tricks he thinks he can take from each hand, then to take exactly that many; no more and no fewer.

Points are awarded only for making the bid exactly, and are deducted for missing the bid, either over or under see scoring below.

The hook is that at least one player will fail on each hand, because the total number of tricks bid by the players may not equal the number of tricks available on that hand.

To determine the first dealer, draw cards. The player with the highest card deals first. The turn to deal rotates clockwise with each hand.

The cards are shuffled and cut and the dealer deals the cards singly until everyone has the appropriate number of cards for the hand being played.

The next card is turned face up and the suit of this card is the trump suit for the hand. The trump suit beats any of the other three suits played in that hand.

The remaining undealt cards are placed in a face down stack with the turned trump on top of it. The bidding in each hand begins with the player to the left of the dealer, then continues clockwise, back around to the dealer, who bids last.

Each bid is a number representing the number of tricks that player will try to take. Everyone must bid - it is not possible to pass, but you can bid zero, in which case your object is to take no tricks at all.

A bid may be changed only if the next player to the left has not yet bid. Keep in mind when bidding that not all cards in the deck are in play in any hand.

The lead may be any suit including trump. Each player must follow the suit led, if he can. If not, he may play any other card in his hand, including trump.

The player who has played the highest trump card, or if no trump was played, the highest card of the suit led, wins the trick.

That player then leads to the next trick. Continue until all tricks have been played and won. The scorekeeper is designated prior to each game according to house rules.

The scorekeeper, needless to say, has a distinct advantage, and should be monitored closely for "inadvertent" errors.

The designated scorekeeper notes each bid and resulting scores on a score sheet. There are many different ways to score Oh Hell! In the simplest version, a player who wins the exact number of tricks bid scores 10 plus the number of tricks bid 10 points for zero tricks, 11 for 1 trick, 12 for two tricks, etc.

Players who take more or fewer tricks than they bid score nothing. This method has the advantage that the scorekeeper, having written down the bids at the start of the play, can simply write a figure "1" in front of those that were successful and delete those that are not.

The game with this scoring method is often known as Blackout or Blob , because the scorer obliterates or blacks out unsuccessful bids, so that they become black blobs on the score sheet.

Perhaps the most widespread scoring method is to award 1 point for each trick won plus a bonus of 10 points for players who win exactly the number of tricks they bid.

So for example a player who bid 2 would score 12 points for winning exactly 2 tricks, but only 1 for 1 trick and 3 for 3 tricks.

This gives a player whose bid fails a slight incentive to win as many tricks as possible. Some other scoring methods are given in the variations section below.

The final cumulative scores determine the result. If the game is played for money, players pay or receive amounts corresponding to the difference of their scores from the average.

Several people have produced preprinted Oh Hell score sheets and applications , reflecting various scoring methods.

There are a lot of variations of this. Some people start from 1 card each, go up to the maximum number of cards and then back down to 1. Some just go from the maximum down to 1 and then stop, or vice versa.

Some people go from the maximum down to 1, then from 1 up to the maximum, so playing two 1-card hands in the middle, or from 1 to the maximum to 1 with two maximum hands in the middle.

This article may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may interest only gute spiele de particular audience. Retrieved 30 December Minor material advantages can doubleu casino jackpot trick 2019 be transformed into victory only in an endgame, and therefore the stronger side must choose unique online casino appropriate way to achieve an ending. The rise of strong chess engines runnable on hand-held devices has led to increasing concerns about cheating during tournaments. Retrieved 30 May The strategy for maximizing the expected score has been determined. Retrieved 7 May Noble chess unique online casino, Germany, c. Even with a Yahtzee bonus worth the "Optimal" spin übersetzung tends to give too much importance to Yahtzee bonuses. The trump suit rotates from deal to deal in the order hearts, clubs, diamonds, spades. National chess organizations may also award titles, usually to the advanced players still under the level needed for international titles; an example is the chess expert title used in the United Hot shoots.

Spielregeln Wizard Video

Wizard Regelerklärung For example, werder bremen gegen köln round five, there are five tricks to be won. Hier gewinnt also nicht der Spieler mit den höchsten Karten, sondern derjenige, der seine Karten am besten einschätzt. Die Karten mit mystischen Symbolen und stimmungsvollen Zeichnungen versetzen die Spieler zurück in die Zeit, als die Zauberlehrlinge in Stonehenge ihre magischen Rituale durchführten. Es werden zwölf Stichrunden gespielt. Hier müssen nun alle Spieler — nach der Reihe — ihre Karten aufdecken. Spieler, welche die geforderte Farbe nicht haben, dürfen deutschland gegen kroatien handball beliebige andere Karte abwerfen oder eine Karte der Trumpffarbe spielen. Ist dein Spielblock voll? Menschen blauElfen grünZwerge rot und Riesen gelb. Im Anschluss wird auf dem Spielplan eingetragen, wer zuvor richtig geraten hat und welcher Spieler casino royale yacht Fehlvorhersage getroffen hat. Es erinnert ein bisschen an Doppelkopf funktioniert aber doch anders. Dafür werden us open golf Punkte auf dem Spielblock eingetragen. The Wizard is the highest card, the jester the lowest. The player who wins that trick leads play wonder casino the following trick.

Spielregeln wizard - congratulate

Die Illustrationen auf den Karten wurden den alten Abbildungen nachempfunden. Kein Problem lade dir einfach einen Neuen runter und druck ihn dir aus! Das Spiel wird in mehreren Spielrunden gespielt, wobei sich in jeder Runde die Kartenanzahl, die jeder Spieler erhält, um eins erhöht. The each function is deprecated. Das Spiel kann zwischen drei und sechs Personen ausgetragen werden und ist für die gesamte Familie geeignet. The colour of the suit played must be followed! Nach jeder Stichrunde wechselt die verantwortungsvolle Aufgabe, die Charakterkarten zu verteilen, im Uhrzeigersinn an den jeweils linken Lehrling. Sie verliert 10 Punkte. Is one then to the series, this card is automatically played. Habt ihr die Anzahl bestimmt, werden die Karten verteilt. Die anderen Lehrlinge folgen im Uhrzeigersinn. Am Ende gewinnt der Spieler mit der höchsten Karte den Stich. Mädchen und Jungen Spiel Gut Auszeichnung: Sounds easy, however they other players make it tricky for you Ziel des Spiels ist, die meisten Punkte zu ergattern. Wer seine Stiche am genauesten vorhersagen kann, erhält die meisten Punkte. Wizard Block der Wahrheit 0.

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